Autism is rapidly growing worldwide with massive impact on families, country and economy. Genetic and environmental causes are thought to be the main groups of aetiology of autism. Genetic mutations in multiple genes are identified, but they affect only less than 1/3 of cases. Environmental causes, specially trace elements deficiency and excess, leading to development of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) through several mechanisms is discussed in this editorial, with a mini literature survey. However, satisfactory evidence for clear mechanism or aetiology of autism is still lacking. Thus delays the development of an effective treatment strategy for ASD.
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